TRADE, HETEROGENEOUS FIRMS AND IMMIGRANT WORKERS
Léa MARCHAL, Clément NEDONCELLE, Immigrants, Occupations and Firm Export Performance, (2019) Review of International Economics.
Paper & Online appendix ~ Kiel Working Paper ~ Royal Economic Society Media Briefings
Holger GÖRG, Léa MARCHAL, Die Effekte deutscher Direktinvestitionen im Empfängerland vor dem Hintergrund des Leistungsbilanzüberschusses: Empirische Evidenz mit Mikrodaten für Frankreich, (2019) Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik.
Paper ~ Kiel pre-publication brief
Rezart HOXHAJ, Léa MARCHAL, Adnan SERIC, FDI and Migration of Skilled Workers towards Developing Countries: Firm-level Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa, (2016) Journal of African Economies.
Paper ~ EQUIPPE Working Paper
Léa MARCHAL, Giulia SABBADINI, Immigrant Workers, Firm Export Performance and Import Competition – Submitted.
ANR-DFG project: NaWaCC
Abstract: This paper investigates whether the employment of immigrant workers affects the performance of firms in their export markets when they are facing an increase in import competition. Exploiting the surge of Chinese imports following its accession to the World Trade Organization and using a sample of French manufacturing exporters from 2002 to 2015, we find that an increase in the growth rate of Chinese imports in a market has a negative effect on both the survival probability of firms and the growth rate of sales on that market. This negative effect on firm performance is mitigated by the employment of immigrant workers.
CES Working Paper
Amandine AUBRY, Jérôme HÉRICOURT, Léa MARCHAL, Clément NEDONCELLE, Does Immigration Affect Wages? A Meta-Analysis – Submitted.
Abstract: Does immigration deter native wages? No decisive answer has been provided until now. We provide an up-to-date meta-analysis of the literature investigating this topical question, based on 2,146 estimates from 64 studies published between 1972 and 2019. We confirm the average effect of immigration on native wages is negative and close to zero. This average effect hides a large heterogeneity across studies. Variation across estimates can be explained by the presence of structural heterogeneity such as the country of analysis, whereas little variance can be attributed to heterogeneity in research designs. Finally, on top of these structural determinants, we estimate a strong,robust, and negative effect of publishing in leading academic journals.
LEM Working Paper
Léa MARCHAL, Guzmán OURENS, Giulia SABBADINI, When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant Wage Gap – In progress.
Abstract: We use French employer-employee data following employees in the manufacturing sector from 2005 to 2012 to show that the wage gap between native and foreign workers depends on the firm’s export activity, and the employee’s occupational group. In line with previous evidence, we find that immigrants earn less than natives and that exporters pay higher wages. New to this literature, we find that the nativity wage gap varies with the export intensity of the firm and the occupational group of the worker within the firm. We present a simple model with heterogeneous firms and workers to show that our findings are consistent with white-collar immigrant workers capturing an informational rent, as they provide exporters with valuable information to access foreign markets. We provide empirical evidence for this mechanism by analysing how the nativity wage gap varies with the complexity of firm export activity, and with the group of origin of the immigrant workers.
DETERMINANTS OF MIGRATION AND MIGRATION POLICIES
Léa MARCHAL, Claire NAIDITCH, Betül SIMSEK, Managing Migration Flows Through Foreign Aid – R&R.
Abstract: This paper investigates through which channels foreign aid impacts migration to donor countries. To disentangle the non-donor-specific channels (development and credit constraint channels) from the donor-specific channels (information and instrumentation channels), we use the fact that multilateral aid is not donor-specific contrary to bilateral aid. We estimate a gravity model derived from a RUM model of migration using an IV-2SLS strategy and the DEMIG-C2C and AidData datasets. We find that aid donated by a country increases migration to that donor through an information channel and especially for the poorest recipient countries. In addition, we find that aid weakly reduces migration to any country via a development channel.
LEM Working Paper
Jerg GUTMANN, Léa MARCHAL, Betül SIMSEK, Do rights matter in migration decisions? Inference based on gender differences – In progress.
Abstract: This article studies the role of institutions as a driver of international migration. We exploit the differential effect of discriminatory legal institutions with respect to the largest population experiencing such systematic discrimination — women — on individual migration decisions. We estimate the migration rate of females with respect to males using a gravity model derived from a RUM model of migration. Using data on 107 origin to 26 destination countries over 1960-2011 and an instrumentation strategy, we find that gender discrimination depresses the relative migration rate. Relative migration increases with equality in political rights and civil liberties in low-income countries, while it increases with economic rights in middle- and high-income countries.