PUBLICATIONS

Léa MARCHAL, Claire NAIDITCH
How Borrowing Constraints Hinder Migration: Theoretical Insights from a RUM Model
(2020) Scandinavian Journal of Economics
Paper & online appendixKiel Working Paper

Léa MARCHAL, Clément NEDONCELLE
Immigrants, Occupations and Firm Export Performance
(2019) Review of International Economics
TRAMCEF project – TRAvailleurs Migrants et Comportement d’Exportation des Firmes
PACaPe project – Politiques migratoire et d’Accueil, Capital humain et Performances économiques
NaWaCC project – How Immigration Impacts Natives’ Wages: Investigating Cross-Country Differences
Paper & online appendix ~ Kiel Working Paper ~ Royal Economic Society Media Briefings

Holger GÖRG, Léa MARCHAL
Die Effekte deutscher Direktinvestitionen im Empfängerland vor dem Hintergrund des Leistungsbilanzüberschusses : Empirische Evidenz mit Mikrodaten für Frankreich
(2019) Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik
Paper ~ Kiel pre-publication brief

Rezart HOXHAJ, Léa MARCHAL, Adnan SERIC
FDI and Migration of Skilled Workers towards Developing Countries: Firm-level Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
(2016) Journal of African Economies
Paper ~ EQUIPPE Working Paper

Hubert JAYET, Léa MARCHAL
Migration and FDI: Reconciling the Standard Trade Theory with Empirical Evidence
(2016) Economic Modelling
Paper ~ Kiel Working Paper ~ EQUIPPE Working Paper

 

WORK IN PROGRESS

Léa MARCHAL, Claire NAIDITCH, Betül SIMSEK
Managing Migration Flows Through Foreign Aid
Abstract: This paper investigates through which channels foreign aid impacts migration to donor countries. To disentangle the non-donor-specific channels (development and credit constraint channels) from the donor-specific channels (information and instrumentation channels), we use the fact that multilateral aid is not donor-specific contrary to bilateral aid. We estimate a gravity model derived from a RUM model of migration using an IV-2SLS strategy and the DEMIG-C2C and AidData datasets. We find that aid donated by a country increases migration to that donor through an information channel and especially for the poorest recipient countries. In addition, we find that aid weakly reduces migration to any country via a development channel.
LEM Working Paper

Léa MARCHAL, Giulia SABBADINI
Immigrant Workers, Firm Export Performance and Import Competition
ANR-DFG project: NaWaCC
Abstract: This paper investigates whether the employment of immigrant workers affects the performance of firms in their export markets when they are facing an increase in import competition. Exploiting the surge of Chinese imports following its accession to the World Trade Organization and using a sample of French manufacturing exporters from 2002 to 2015, we find that an increase in the growth rate of Chinese imports in a market has a negative effect on both the survival probability of firms and the growth rate of sales on that market. This negative effect on firm performance is mitigated by the employment of immigrant workers. 
CES Working Paper

Amandine AUBRY, Jérôme HÉRICOURT, Léa MARCHAL, Clément NEDONCELLE
Does Immigration Affect Wages? A Meta-Analysis
Abstract: Does immigration deter native wages? No decisive answer has been provided until now. We provide an up-to-date meta-analysis of the literature investigating this topical question, based on 2,146 estimates from 64 studies published between 1972 and 2019. We confirm the average effect of immigration on native wages is negative and close to zero. This average effect hides a large heterogeneity across studies. Variation across estimates can be explained by the presence of structural heterogeneity such as the country of analysis, whereas little variance can be attributed to heterogeneity in research designs. Finally, on top of these structural determinants, we estimate a strong,robust, and negative effect of publishing in leading academic journals.
LEM Working Paper

Léa MARCHAL, Guzmán OURENS, Giulia SABBADINI
When Immigrants Meet Exporters: A Reassessment of the Immigrant Wage Gap
Abstract: We use French employer-employee data allowing to follow employees in the manufacturing sector from 2005 to 2012, matched with customs data, to show that the wage gap between native and foreign workers depends on firm and employee characteristics. In line with previous evidence, we find that immigrants earn less than natives and that exporters pay higher wages. New to this literature, we find that the nativity wage gap of white-collar workers varies with the export intensity of the firm and the hierarchical position of the worker within the firm. We present a simple model with heterogeneous firms and workers to show that our findings are consistent with white-collar immigrant workers capturing an informational rent, as they provide exporters with valuable information to access foreign markets. We provide evidence for this mechanism by analysing how the nativity wage gap varies with the complexity of firm export activity.

Léa MARCHAL, Lenka WILDNEROVA
Foreign Workers and Exports: Exploring a Reverse Causality Bias
Abstract: This paper analyses to what extent French manufacturing firms adjust their employment of immigrant workers in response to foreign demand fluctuations. To allow for causal inference, we use a foreign demand proxy that reacts to macro-economic fluctuations in the firm’s export destinations, but that is exogenous to its employment decisions. Using administrative data on French manufacturing firms from 2005 to 2015, we find that exporters facing an increase in foreign demand hire more immigrant workers, especially immigrants under permanent contracts. We also find that firms employ immigrants because these workers relax informational barriers.